Connecting the other half: Exploring options for the 50% of the population unconnected to the internet
As of the end of 2019, 46.4% of the world's population does not have regular access to the Internet. Bringing the more than 3.5 billion individuals still unconnected online is the primary goal for multiple international organizations, including the ITU and the UN Broadband Commission. Two important barriers that restrict connectivity are the lack of infrastructure and affordability.
Digital divides across consumers of internet services in Spain using panel data 2007–2019. Narrowing or not?
Digital gaps have the potential to exacerbate the inequalities that exist in society. The main objective of this paper is to study the gaps that occur in the use of internet services by households in Spain during the period 2007–2019 and to become useful in the design of policies addressed to narrow specific digital divides. The data is a panel obtained from the ICT-H Survey on Households of the National Statistics Institute. This paper defines the gaps as the differences in the use of internet services across individual consumers.
Using data from Mexico's 2016 National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH), we estimate the impact of Internet access on the multidimensional and income poverty of rural and urban Mexico. Based on a Propensity Score Matching approach, our results show that Internet access helps reduce poverty levels in Mexico. Findings also reveal differentiated effects in the two indicators accounting for greater deprivation. The impacts on reducing extreme income poverty and extreme multidimensional poverty are more significant for the rural sector than for the urban sector.
Reforming funding of universal access to telecommunications and broadband services: Approaches for the new decade
The Federal Communications Commission universal service support fund's revenue base has been shrinking while the payouts have risen. As a result, the contribution factor, an ad valorem tax on the revenue base, rose from 16.7% in 2017 to 21.2% in 2020. We propose two solutions to the funding problem: A near-term funding reform proposal that widens the revenue base by replacing the current definition of assessable services (interstate and international) with a more inclusive definition of all communication services that have a telecommunications component.
The future demand for data and the role of gigabit networks are central issues in the context of Next Generation Access (NGA) network roll-out. Based on a generic model, which allows to predict unconstrained future broadband demand in different regions and countries, the authors compare the results for Germany, the UK and the Flemish region, and discuss reasons for the different outcomes.
When the telecommunications industry was liberalised in Europe and North America in the 1980s and 1990s, it inherited a legacy of monopoly providers whose footprint was national or multi-regional in its character. The regulatory framework, particularly that adopted in EU member states, reflected this pattern of relatively homogeneous deployment achieved, in part, by decades of cross-subsidised pricing and universal service goals.