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1 Horrigan, J., Garret, K., & Resnick, P. (2004). The Internet and Democratic Debate. Pew Internet and American Life Project and the University of Michigan School of Information; Cooper, M. (n.d.). Media Ownership and Democracy in the Digital Information Age. Center for Internet & Society, 146. Stanford Law School; Carter, S., Fico, F., & McCabe, J. (2002). Partisan and Structural Balance in Local Television Election Coverage. Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly, 79. p.42; Norris, P. (2002). Revolution, What Revolution? The Internet and U.S. Elections, 1992-2000.
2 Communications Act of 1934 (Ch. 652, S. 303) authorizes the FCC to regulate broadcast licenses “as the public convenience, interest, or necessity requires.”
3 Veronis Suhler Stevenson Communications Industry Forecast & Report. (2003). Retrieved from Veronis Suhler Stevenson Media Merchant Bank, http://www.vss.com/articles/articles_2003/article_081103.html.
4 The Decline of Broadcasters’ Public Interest Obligations. (2004). Referenced from the Spectrum Policy Program Policy Backgrounder, New America Foundation.
5 Federal Communications Commission, FCC press release with summary at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-235047A1; Report and Order in MB Docket No. 02-277 and MM Docket Nos. 01-235, 01-317, 00-244, MB Docket No. 03–-130 at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-03-127A1.doc.
6 More than two million people contacted the FCC and Congress in 2003 to express their concern about the state of American media and the risks of media concentration. “State of the News Media 2004,” Project for Excellence in Journalism.
7 Charting the Digital Broadcasting Future. (1998). Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters. Also available at http://www.benton.org/publibrary/piac/home.html.
9 MM Docket 00-167; (FCC 04-221); Children’s Television Obligations Of Digital Television Broadcasters. (Adopted: September 9, 2004, Released: November 23, 2004) http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-04-221A1.doc. News Release: http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-251972A1.doc. Order on Reconsideration January 31, 2005 (delay of Web site rules) http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-05-22A1.doc
10 A Primer on the Public Interest Obligations of Television Broadcasters. (1997). Prepared by United States Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration for the Advisory Committee on the Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters (PIAC). http://www.ntia.doc.gov/pubintadvcom/octmtg/PI-COVR2.htm.
Section II: Children
1 Wright, J.C., & and Huston, A.C. (2004). Effects of educational TV viewing in lower income preschoolers on academic skills, school readiness, and school adjustment one to three years later: A report to Children’s Television Workshop. Referenced in Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children, a report from Children Now.
2 Kids Media at the New Millennium. (1999). p. 23. Kaiser Family Foundation.
3 Referenced at http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_habits.html
4 Chen, M. (1994). The Smart Parent’s Guide to Kids’ TV. San Francisco: KQED Books.
5 Referenced at http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
6 The Effects of Electronic Media on Children Ages Zero to Six: A History of Research. (2005) Issue Brief of Kaiser Family Foundation.
7 See, for example, MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER AND FORFEITURE ORDER. In the Matter of Liability of SPOKANE TELEVISION, INC. Licensee of Television Station KXLY-TV, Spokane, Washington Facility I.D. No. 61978. (Adopted: May 24, 2000, Released: May 26, 2000) http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Mass_Media/Orders/2000/da001173.doc.
8 Referenced at http://www.fcc.gov/vchip/
10 MM Docket 00-167; (FCC 04-221); Children’s Television Obligations Of Digital Television Broadcasters. (Adopted: September 9, 2004, Released: November 23, 2004).
11 Johnson, N. (1993). A Public Health Response to Handgun Injuries: Prescription -- Communications and Education. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, pp. 47-51 [Am J Prev Med 1993;9(suppl 1):47-51], http://www.uiowa.edu/~cyberlaw/cpsr/firearms.txt.
12 FCC, 445 12th St., SW, Washington, DC 20554 Fax: (202)-418-2810 Telephone number: (202) 418-7450 E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
13 See UCC OC Press Release and Press Coverage http://www.ucc.org/news/u090104.htm.
Section III: Democracy
1 Referenced at http://www.campaignlegalcenter.org/attachment.html/CLC_MediaGuide+(FINAL).pdf?id-1121
2 The Tough Job of Communicating with Voters. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (February 5, 2000) at http://people-press.org/reports/print.php3?PageID=242
3 Local TV News Coverage of the 2002 General Election (2003). The Lear Center Local News Archive at the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California.
4 All Politics Is Local, But You Wouldn’t Know it by Watching Local TV: Less than One Half of One Percent of Programming is Local Public Affairs (2003). Alliance for Better Campaigns.
5 Copps, M. (2004). Referenced from speech given at Public Interest, Public Airwaves Coalition Meeting. Available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-249769A1.doc
8 Enhanced News Coverage of Political Process Planned. (2004). Liberty Corporation Press Release. http://www.libertycorp.com/Global/story.asp?S=1967627
9 McAvoy, Kim. (2004). This Station Group Takes Politics Seriously. Broadcasting&Cable. See http://www.broadcastingcable.com/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID...
10 See for example, Billings Gazette. http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2003/10/01...
11 Referenced in Senate Commerce Committee press release: http://commerce.senate.gov/newsroom/printable.cfm?id=226653.
12 Madison, J. (1822). Excerpt from a letter to W.T. Barry.
Section IV: Diversity
1 Copps, M. (2004) Consolidation and Obligation. Broadcasting & Cable. Referenced at http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA455904.html?verticalid=311&in....
2 Fall Colors: Prime Time Diversity Report. (2004). Children Now. Referenced at http://www.childrennow.org/media/fc2003/fc-2003-highlights.cfm
6 Tirodkar, M., & Jain, A. (2003). Food Messages on African American Television Shows. American Journal of Public Health, 93: 439-441.
7 Umstead, R.T. (2004). Black Viewing Shifts May Add Up to Ad Agita. Multichannel News. Referenced at http://www.multichannel.com/article/CA476562.html?display=Top+Stories&re....
8 Spending Spree (2001). HispanicBusiness.com. Referenced at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=5872&page=1
See chart at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=5872&page=2
9 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (Philadelphia) ruling in Prometheus Radio Project v. FCC (Case No. 03-3388).
10 Eggerton, J. (2005). Government Passes on Ownership Review. Broadcasting & Cable. Referenced at http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA499594.html?display=Breaking+....
11 Referenced at http://www.fcc.gov/DiversityFAC/
Section V. :Emergency/Disability
1 Pursuant to FCC rules, the federal Emergency Alert System is designed to disseminate local, regional, and federal information using radio, television, and cable channels. 47 C.F.R. Part 11. See http://www.fcc.gov/eb/eas/.
2 Referenced at http://www.amberalertnow.org/aboutamber.html.
3 McConnell, B. (2004). This is Not a Test. Broadcasting & Cable. Referenced at http://www.broadcastingcable.com/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID....
4 Moore, L.K. (2004). Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Referenced at http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32527.pdf.
5 “According to the US Geological Survey’s Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems, most of these innovations will require minimal use of the 6 megahertz bandwidth available to digital broadcasters.” From Charting the Digital Future. Recommendation 7: Disaster Warnings in the Digital Age http://www.benton.org/publibrary/piac/rec7.html
6 In the Matter of Review of the Emergency Alert System (EB Docket No. 04-296), adopted August 2, 2004; released August 12, 2004 (NPRM at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-04-189A1.doc)
7 Section 305, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-114, 110 Stat. 56 (1996) and Pub. L. No. 101-431, 104 Stat. 960 (1990) (codified at 47 U.S. C. Sections 303(u), 330(b)).
9 Charting the Digital Broadcasting Future. (1998). Recommendation 8. Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters. Also available at http://www.benton.org/publibrary/piac/home.html.
10 Referenced in FCC Closed Captioning Factsheet at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/closedcaption.html
12 Report & Order on Implementation of Video Description of Video Programming Rules Adopted July 21, 2000 and Released August 7, 2000. http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/vd-order.doc
13 Motion Picture Association of America, Inc., et al. v. FCC, 309 F.3d 796 (D.C. Cir. 2002) [No. 01-1149, November 8, 2002].
Section VI: Disclosure
1 The Public and Broadcasting. (1999). Mass Media Bureau, Federal Communications Commission. Referenced at http://tfp.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Mass_Media/Factsheets/pubbroad.pdf.
2 The Decline of Broadcasters’ Public Interest Obligations. (2004). Spectrum Policy Program Policy Backgrounder, New America Foundation.
3 A 2000 review of the public file of a Washington, DC, TV station provided a lengthy list of seemingly irrelevant programming or program segments, e.g., “Great Britain honored Queen Mum’s 100th birthday” as addressing the DC-area’s needs. In the Matter of Standardized and Enhanced Disclosure Requirements for Television Broadcast Licensee Public Interest Obligations. (MM Docket 00-168) Comments filed by United Church of Christ et al. (Dec 18, 2000).
4 Charting the Digital Broadcasting Future. (1998). Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters. Also available at http://www.benton.org/publibrary/piac/home.html.
5 Ibid. Recommendation 1. Also available at http://www.benton.org/publibrary/piac/rec1.html.
6 McConnell, B. EEO Audits Cleared. (n.d.) Broadcasting & Cable. Available at http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA434216?display=Breaking+News (requires subscription).
Section VII: Broadcasters
1 Mayer, C. E. (1983). FCC Chief’s Fears: Fowler Sees Threat in Regulation. Washington Post.
2 Schwartzman, A. (1997). Testimony before Advisory Committee on Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters.
4 Goodmon, J. (1998). Charting the Digital Future: Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Public Internet Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters. Section IV. Supplemental Statements.
5 A National Report of Local Broadcasters’ Community Service. (2004). National Association of Broadcasters.
Section VIII: Context
1 Section 335 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. § 335, and Section 100.5(c) of the Commission’s rules, 47 C.F.R. § 100.5(c)
2 Universal Service Administrative Company Frequently Asked Questions page http://www.universalservice.org/faqs/
3 FCC Cable Television Fact Sheet on Public, Educational and Governmental Access Channels (May 1998) http://www.fcc.gov/mb/facts/pegfacts.html