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Universal Service: A Perspective and Policies for the Next Century

Universal Service

A Historical Perspective and Policies
for the Twenty-First Century

A joint publication of the Benton Foundation
and the Consumer Federation of America

By Mark Cooper


1. Universal service: A century of commitment

2. Universal affordable service

3. Affordability: Explicit statements of complex goals

4. Basic service

5. Targeted programs to promote universal service


Appendix 1. What does basic service cost?

Appendix 2. What is basic service?

Appendix 3. Participation in federal universal service programs

Back to the Universal Service Library

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Last updated: 9 December 1996 mkh