This page is part of Benton Foundation's online archive. We've kept some old stuff around for historical purposes.

Universal Service and Universal Access Virtual Library

The Benton Foundation's Universal Service
and Universal Access Virtual Library

Help the Benton Foundation add to the Universal Service and Universal Access Library Benton Foundation Papers on Universal Service Universal Service in Context: A Multidisciplinary perspective New Definitions Connecting Educational, Health, and other Public Interest Institutions Organizations The Federal Government The States International Vulnerable Communities Market Perspectives Publications

For further information, visit the Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service page.

Benton Foundation Papers on Universal Service

Losing Ground Bit by Bit: Low-Income Communities in the Information Age This report looks at the barriers (beyond just income) that are slowing the spread of new technology in low-income communities. Susan M. Goslee

The New Definition of Universal Service
And The Role for Public Interest Advocates to Make Federal Telecommunications Policy Work in Your State
Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (The Next Generation of Universal Service: Discounts for Schools and Libraries
Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (The Next Generation of Universal Service: Recommendations of the Joint Board on Universal Service
Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (Universal Service: A Historical Perspective and Policies for the 21st Century Mark Cooper

Summaries and Links to Comments Filed in Universal Service Proceeding

Public Interest Advocates, Universal Service and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (NetTrans Accounts: Reforming the Financial Support Structure for Universal Service in Telecommunications Eli M. Noam

Universal Service and the Information Superhighway Policy Briefing 1

Universal Service and the Information Superhighway Policy Bulletin 1

Beyond Universal Service: Characteristics of Americans without Telephones1980-1993. Jorge Reina Schement.

The Rural Challenge: Changing Requirements and Policy Options Heather Hudson

Universal Service: Policy Options for the Future Susan G. Hadden

Recovering Network Subsidies without Distortion Michael A. Einhorn

Funding the Public Telecommunications Infrastructure Bruce L. Egan & Steven Wildman

"Universal Service in Context: a Multidisciplinary Perspective" New York Law School Conference

Breaking the Bottleneck and Sharing the Wealth: A Perspective on Universal Service Policy in an Era of Local Competition Robert K. Lock, Jr.

A Framework for Managing Telecommunications Deregulation While Meeting Universal Service Goals Barbara A. Cherry, Steven S. Wildman

An Outline for Organizing Universal Service Proposals Marlin Blizinsky

Universal Service: The Stakeholder Response James C. Smith

Remarks of Dr. Michael D. Pelcovits--Stakeholder Response Dr. Michael D. Pelcovits

The Social Architecture of Community Computing Allen W. Batteau

The Local Government Perspective: Can the Harmonica Play in the Symphony? Brenda J. Trainor Manager, Regional Telecommunications Clark County, Nevada

Transcending Access Toward a New Universal Service Jorge Reina Schement, Rebecca R. Pressman, Laurance Povich

Universal Service in Vermont Peter Bluhm

Universal Service: Prosaic Motives and Great Ideals Harmeet Sawhney

New Definitions

Implementing Universal Service After the 1996 Telecommunications Act
Report of the Eleventh Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy
August 18-21, 1996

"Universal service" and the new Telecommunications Act: Mythology Made Law Milton Mueller

NTIA Conference on the Future of the Net Ronda Hauben
Summarizes the 1994 NTIA online Conference held by the U.S. government and presents the discussion and reasons presented as to why there is a need for universal access to email, Usenet and a text based browser. Also presents prototype for public policy hearings.

Universal Access to E-Mail RAND

The Governance of Cyberspace Home Page

Reforms toward the Intellectually Creative Society of the 21st Century Telecommunications Council

A Civil Liberties Ride on the Information Superhighway Barry Steinhardt, ACLU

Universal Service from the Bottom Up Dr. Milton Mueller & Dr. Jorge Reina Schement

Universal Service (An Idea Whose Time Is Past) John Browning
Politicians love to give it lip service, but universal service is a 1930s solution to a 21st century problem. The problem is an excess (not shortage) of bandwidth, and the solution is called Open Access.

Connecting Educational, Health, and other Public Interest Institutions

Connecting K-12 Schools to the NII: A Preliminary Assessment of Technology Models and Their Associated Costs R. I. Rothstein

TeleRead David H. Rothman
TeleRead is the final chapter of Scholarly Publishing: The Electronic Frontier (The MIT Press, 1996). TeleRead explains how to cost-justify a well-stocked national digital library through a focused hardware procurement program for schools and libraries, and also through the use of electronic forms running on the same machines. The approach developed is one that promotes the growth of a private market for text- and forms-friendly hardware.


Alliance for Competitive Communications

Connecting Each to All: A Telecommunications Platform for the Information Age. The Alliance for Public Technology's vision of universal service.

The Federal Government

FCC/Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association Foundation Hold Education Roundtable "Using Wireless Technologies To Connect our Schools"

Falling Through The Net: A Survey of the "Have Nots" in Rural and Urban America. NTIA

The Global Information Infrastructure: Agenda For Cooperation NTIA

Competition Is The Key Reed Hundt FCC Chairman

Reflections on the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Communications Act Robert E. Allen

Federal Communications Law Journal published by the Indiana University School of Law - Bloomington and the Federal Communications Bar Association

Steps Toward a Global Information Infrastructure Assistant Secretary of Commerce Larry Irving, Janet Hernandez, Wendy C. Chow

Deregulating the Second Republic Commissioner Andrew C. Barrett

The States

Universal Service Report Card
A joint publication of the Center for Media Education and the Center for Policy Alternatives
Published October 1999

Universal Service Proceedings in the States Courtesy of the American Library Association

Universal Service to Universal Access
Contracted by the State of Arizona, Governor's Office of Telecommunications Policy, this paper examines the evolution of Universal Service, describes existing and federal state universal service mechanisms, and charts the future of universal access to new applications and infrastructure, with some light policy recommendations. Designed to be an information tool for policy makers who are not necessarily technologist.

Universal Service: How States are Planning for the University of Florida College of Journalism & Communications
Recognized as a goal in Section 1 of the 1934 Communications Act, efforts over the years to change our telecommunications laws and policies have always been evaluated, at least in part, for their potential impact on universal service. In 1994, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the Department of Commerce issued a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) on universal service to address three issues. Ninety-seven respondents provided comments to the NTIA for consideration, seven of which were states.

Telecommunications and the Competitive Advantage of Massachusetts Governor William F. Weld

The Evolution of Universal Service in Texas John B. Horrigan

LBJ School Report Finds Most Phoneless in Texas Apprehensive about Long Distance and Reinstallation Costs.

Alaska Public Utilities Commission (APUC) Information

Universal Service in Vermont Peter Bluhm


The Cost, Benefits and Funding of Universal Service in the UK Presents a study recently taken for the UK telecoms regulator Oftel.

Europe and the Global Information Society Recommendations to the European Council (PDF Format)

Telecoms Strategy Update Analysis is the largest independent consultancy in Europe specialising solely in the telecommunications field. Our work is built on solid research and data, and the use of unique tools for quantitative analysis.

A Japanese Perspective on the Significance of the Information Revolution Shumpei Kumon

Latin American Telecom Report International Technology Consultants

Green Paper on Telecommunications Policy in South Africa

Beyond The Telephone, The Television And The PC Director General of Telecommunications, UK

Access and Universal Service on the Information Highway
The Canadian government has stated that its Information Highway (IH) strategy will be based on three policy objectives to create jobs through innovation and investment; to reinforce Canadian sovereignty and cultural identity; and to ensure universal access at affordable cost.

Access, Affordability and Universal Service on the Canadian Information Highway Information Highway Advisory Council

Defining and Maintaining Universal Access to Basic Network Services: Canadian Experiences in an International Context The purpose of this research is to compare Canadian approaches to defining and achieving universal access to basic telecommunications services with that of other countries and international bodies.

Vulnerable Communities

Universal Service and Information Poverty: a new look at an old problem Brennon M. Martin
The purpose of the paper is to reframe the debate over Universal Service to one that specifically addresses the problems that Universal Service is intended to solve, i.e., the differences in the ability of groups of individuals to solve their own problems. The paper calls for empirical study of the problem to attempt to shed light on an area of debate that has largely been based on polemics.

Latinos in the Age of Information

Latinos & Technology

Market Perspectives

Universal Service in a Competitive Era

When Local Exchange Competition Calls: A Survey of Competitive Local Exchange Access Issues Venable, Baetjer, Howard & Civiletti, LLP

A commentary on the Commission Green Paper on Liberalisation of Telecommunications Infrastructure and Cable Television Networks